Level 4 alert: severe heatwave
This is the highest heatwave alert in Britain. It is raised when a heatwave is severe and/or prolonged, and is an emergency situation.
At level 4, the health risks from a heatwave can affect fit and healthy people, and not just those in high-risk groups. These groups include the elderly, the very young and people with chronic medical conditions.
Follow the information given above for a level 3 alert. Check that anyone around you who is in a high-risk group is coping with the heat.
How do I know if someone needs help?
Seek help from a GP or contact NHS 111 if someone is feeling unwell and shows symptoms of:
- chest pain
- intense thirst
- cramps which get worse or don't go away
Get the person somewhere cool to rest. Give them plenty of fluids to drink.
Find out about the symptoms of heat exhaustion.
Public Health England "Beat the Heat" leaflet
Sunscreen and sun safety
Advice for adults and children on sunscreen and sun safety in the UK and abroad.
Sunburn increases your risk of skin cancer. Sunburn doesn't just happen on holiday – you can burn in the UK, even when it's cloudy.
There's no safe or healthy way to get a tan. A tan doesn't protect your skin from the sun's harmful effects.
Aim to strike a balance between protecting yourself from the sun and getting enough vitamin D from sunlight.
Sun safety tips
Spend time in the shade when the sun is strongest. In the UK, this is between 11am and 3pm from March to October.
Make sure you:
- spend time in the shade between 11am and 3pm
- make sure you never burn
- cover up with suitable clothing and sunglasses
- take extra care with children
- use at least factor 15 sunscreen
What factor sunscreen (SPF) should I use?
Don't rely on sunscreen alone to protect yourself from the sun. Wear suitable clothing and spend time in the shade when the sun's at its hottest.
When buying sunscreen, the label should have:
- a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 15 to protect against UVB
- at least four-star UVA protection
UVA protection can also be indicated by the letters "UVA" in a circle, which indicates that it meets the EU standard.
Make sure the sunscreen is not past its expiry date. Most sunscreens have a shelf life of two to three years.
Don't spend any longer in the sun than you would without sunscreen.
What are the SPF and star rating?
The sun protection factor, or SPF, is a measure of the amount of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) protection.
SPFs are rated on a scale of 2-50+ based on the level of protection they offer, with 50+ offering the strongest form of UVB protection.
The star rating measures the amount of ultraviolet A radiation (UVA) protection. You should see a star rating of up to five stars on UK sunscreens. The higher the star rating, the better.
The letters "UVA" inside a circle is a European marking. This means the UVA protection is at least one third of the SPF value and meets EU recommendations.
Sunscreens that offer both UVA and UVB protection are sometimes called broad spectrum.
How to apply sunscreen
Most people don't apply enough sunscreen. As a guide, adults should aim to apply around:
- two teaspoons of sunscreen if you're just covering your head, arms and neck
- two tablespoons if you're covering your entire body while wearing a swimming costume
If sunscreen is applied too thinly, the amount of protection it gives is reduced. If you're worried you might not be applying enough SPF15, you could use a stronger SPF30 sunscreen.
If you plan to be out in the sun long enough to risk burning, sunscreen needs to be applied twice:
- 30 minutes before going out
- just before going out
Sunscreen should be applied to all exposed skin, including the face, neck and ears – and head if you have thinning or no hair – but a wide-brimmed hat is better.
Sunscreen needs to be reapplied liberally and frequently, and according to the manufacturer's instructions.
This includes applying it straight after you've been in water – even if it's "water resistant" – and after towel drying, sweating, or when it may have rubbed off.
Swimming and sunscreen
Water washes sunscreen off, and the cooling effect of the water can make you think you're not getting burned. Water also reflects ultraviolet (UV) rays, increasing your exposure.
Water-resistant sunscreen is needed if sweating or contact with water is likely.
Sunscreen should be reapplied straight after you've been in water – even if it's "water resistant" – and after towel drying, sweating, or when it may have rubbed off.
Children and sun protection
Take extra care to protect babies and children. Their skin is much more sensitive than adult skin, and damage caused by repeated exposure to sunlight could lead to skin cancer developing in later life.
Children aged under six months should be kept out of direct strong sunlight.
From March to October in the UK, children should:
- cover up with suitable clothing
- spend time in the shade – particularly from 11am to 3pm
- wear at least SPF15 sunscreen
Apply sunscreen to areas not protected by clothing, such as the face, ears, feet, and backs of hands. Get more sun safety advice for children.
To ensure they get enough vitamin D, all children under five are advised to take vitamin D supplements.
Protect your eyes in the sun
A day at the beach without proper eye protection can cause a temporary but painful burn to the surface of the eye, similar to sunburn.
Reflected sunlight from snow, sand, concrete and water, and artificial light from sunbeds, is particularly dangerous.
Avoid looking directly at the sun, as this can cause permanent eye damage.
Clothing and sunglasses
Wear clothes and sunglasses that provide sun protection, such as:
- a wide-brimmed hat that shades the face, neck and ears
- a long-sleeved top
- trousers or long skirts in close-weave fabrics that don't allow sunlight through
- sunglasses with wraparound lenses or wide arms with the CE Mark and European Standard EN 1836:2005
How to deal with sunburn
Sponge sore skin with cool water, then apply soothing aftersun or calamine lotion.
Painkillers, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen, will ease the pain by helping to reduce inflammation caused by sunburn.
Seek medical help if you feel unwell or the skin swells badly or blisters. Stay out of the sun until all signs of redness have gone.
Read more about treating sunburn.
Get tips on preventing and treating heat exhaustion in hot weather.
Protect your moles
If you have lots of moles or freckles, your risk of getting skin cancer is higher than average, so take extra care.
Avoid getting caught out by sunburn. Use shade, clothing and a sunscreen with an SPF of at least 15 to protect yourself.
Keep an eye out for changes to your skin. Changes to check for include:
- a new mole, growth or lump
- any moles, freckles or patches of skin that change in size, shape or colour
Report these to your doctor as soon as possible. Skin cancer is much easier to treat if it's found early.
Use the mole self-assessment tool to see whether you could have a cancerous mole.
The British Association of Dermatologists advises that people shouldn't use sunbeds or sunlamps.
Sunbeds and lamps can be more dangerous than natural sunlight because they use a concentrated source of UV radiation.
Health risks linked to sunbeds and other UV tanning equipment include:
- skin cancer
- premature skin ageing
- sunburnt skin
- eye irritation
It's illegal for people under the age of 18 to use sunbeds, including in tanning salons, beauty salons, leisure centres, gyms, and hotels.
Find out more by reading Are sunbeds safe?
Insect bites and stings
Most insect bites and stings are not serious and will get better within a few hours or days.
But occasionally they can become infected, cause a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) or spread serious illnesses such as Lyme disease and malaria.
Bugs that bite or sting include wasps, hornets, bees, horseflies, ticks, mosquitoes, fleas, bedbugs, spiders and midges.
Symptoms of insect bites and stings
Insect bites and stings will usually cause a red, swollen lump to develop on the skin. This may be painful and in some cases can be very itchy.
The symptoms will normally improve within a few hours or days, although sometimes they can last a little longer.
Some people have a mild allergic reaction and a larger area of skin around the bite or sting becomes swollen, red and painful. This should pass within a week.
Occasionally, a severe allergic reaction can occur, causing symptoms such as breathing difficulties, dizziness and a swollen face or mouth. This requires immediate medical treatment.
What to do if you've been bitten or stung
To treat an insect bite or sting:
- Remove the sting or tick if it's still in the skin.
- Wash the affected area with soap and water.
- Apply a cold compress (such as a flannel or cloth cooled with cold water) or an ice pack to any swelling for at least 10 minutes.
- Raise or elevate the affected area if possible, as this can help reduce swelling.
- Avoid scratching the area, to reduce the risk of infection.
- Avoid traditional home remedies, such as vinegar and bicarbonate of soda, as they're unlikely to help.
The pain, swelling and itchiness can sometimes last a few days. Ask your pharmacist about over-the-counter treatments that can help, such as painkillers, creams for itching and antihistamines.
When to get medical advice
Contact your GP or call NHS 111 for advice if:
- you're worried about a bite or sting
- your symptoms don't start to improve within a few days or are getting worse
- you've been stung or bitten in your mouth or throat, or near your eyes
- a large area (around 10cm or more) around the bite becomes red and swollen
- you have symptoms of a wound infection, such as pus or increasing pain, swelling or redness
- you have symptoms of a more widespread infection, such as a fever, swollen glands and other flu-like symptoms
When to get emergency medical help
Dial 999 for an ambulance immediately if you or someone else has symptoms of a severe reaction, such as:
- wheezing or difficulty breathing
- a swollen face, mouth or throat
- nausea or vomiting
- a fast heart rate
- dizziness or feeling faint
- difficulty swallowing
- loss of consciousness
Emergency treatment in hospital is needed in these cases.
Prevent insect bites and stings
There are some simple precautions you can take to reduce your risk of being bitten or stung by insects.
For example, you should:
- Remain calm and move away slowly if you encounter wasps, hornets or bees – don't wave your arms around or swat at them.
- Cover exposed skin by wearing long sleeves and trousers.
- Wear shoes when outdoors.
- Apply insect repellent to exposed skin – repellents that contain 50% DEET (diethyltoluamide) are most effective.
- Avoid using products with strong perfumes, such as soaps, shampoos and deodorants – these can attract insects.
- Be careful around flowering plants, rubbish, compost, stagnant water, and in outdoor areas where food is served.
You may need to take extra precautions if you're travelling to part of the world where there's a risk of serious illnesses. For example, you may be advised to take antimalarial tablets to help prevent malaria.
Have a Happy and Healthy summer!